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EU vote recasts Denmark’s anti-terror measures

eu dk flag

by Annette Birch

Published in The Capital Post on Dec. 7, …

Just a few hours after the voting boxes closed at 8 p.m. on Dec.3, the result was clear. The Danish people had by a majority of 53 percent decided to maintain Denmark’s reservation to participate in EU police cooperation and other legal affairs. The result can inhibit Denmark’s ability to fight cross-border crimes such as terrorism, which require flexible cooperation and exchange of information across borders.

”One lesson from the Paris attacks is that there is a silo mentality – countries and sometimes organizations within countries don’t share information. And one of the great successes of Europol is that it can co-ordinate activity against organized crime across borders,” said UK cyber-crime expert and Europol advisor Professor Alan Woodward from Surrey University to SCMagazineUK.com on Dec.2.

Europol assists national authorities of member states such as Denmark by exchanging information, providing intelligence analysis and threat assessments, as well as proving member states with fast and secure capabilities for storing, searching, visualizing and linking information in databases and communication channels.

Previously, Denmark has been able to participate in the anti-terror cooperation coordinated by Europol despite its reservation to participate in police cooperation and legal affairs on a supranational level.

However, if EU members as expected in the spring 2016 decide to make Europol a supranational institution, Denmark can no longer participate as long as the reservation is in place. This has been emphasized on several occasions during the referendum campaign by the right wing party in government, The Liberal Party, as well as the two left wing parties, The Social Democratic Party and The Socialist Party.

Denmark left behind in renewed anti-terror efforts

The Danish Police has several times warned that if Denmark did not repeal the country’s reservation, it could have consequences for the Danish ability to effectively exchange and communicate across borders; a tool essential to combat international crime such as terrorism and cybercrime.

”The advantage of Europol is that they automatically ask out in all states. We ask about 100 times a day,” said Head of the Police’s investigating unit, Michael Ask, to TV2 in February 2015.

The Paris attacks has sparked a renewed European will to work together to combat terrorism. The process was already initiated in 2014, when Europol launched a project to store information about thousands of people suspected of travelling across borders to engage in terrorism. This summer it was announced that a cyber-police team from all over Europe, coordinated by Europol, would be tasked with tracking down and dismantling the Islamic State’s social media presence. Finally, the European Parliament granted Europol powers to set up new police units to counter emerging threats from terrorists on Nov. 26.

No is a not a no to Europol

While some Danish parties like the left wing party, The Unity Party, and the rightwing party, Liberal Alliance, are wholeheartedly against Europol, others argue that maintaining the reservation does not necessarily leave Denmark out of Europol.

”We should supplement it [the reservation] with a parallel agreement, so Denmark can stay in the European police cooperation. It is possible, if the government will just do the necessary ground work,” said Member of Parliament for the right wing party, Danish People’s Party, to the Danish online newspaper, Altinget, on Dec. 2.

However, the EU authorities has been more skeptical, pointing out that Denmark should not expect to be able to choose freely.

”EU is not a self-service table,” several officials in Bruxelles said to the Danish newspaper, Berlingske Tidende, on Dec. 3.

The future is uncertain

But if Denmark wants to stay in Europol, a parallel agreement is exactly what the Danish government has to try to negotiate.

”It is my impression that both parties for and against the reservation agree it would be a disaster for Denmark and the Danish police, if we have to leave Europol. Therefore, we should attempt to negotiate a solution so Denmark can stay in Europol,” said the Danish Prime Minister Lars Løkke Andersen to Jyske Vestkysten just after the result had been announced late Dec. 3.

The Danish Prime Minister has summoned all parties in Parliament to meet on Monday Dec. 7 in order to discuss what course to take. On Friday Dec. 11, he will meet with EU Commission Chairman Jean-Claude Juncker and EU President Tusk in Brussels.

 

Obama will close Guantanamo – again

In the wake of the recent terrorist attacks in Paris, President Barack Obama pledged that he still intends to close the prison at Guantanamo Bay, which has been widely criticized for holding prisoners without regard for the rights protected in the U.S. Constitution.

However, this is not the first time. Obama promised 9 months ago and again two years ago that he would close Guantanamo.

Nobody doubt the resolve of President Obama to close Guantanamo. He has almost every year pleadged to close the prison, which has been known and criticized widely for it’s methods and attempts at immunity from fundamental rights protected by the U.S. Constitution. During his 2008 presidential campaign, Obama criticized then President George Bush for establishing Guantanamo – a prison Bush said was not under the protections guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution.

Next year he again promised to close Guantanamo, this time in a year.

So the question remains why Guantanamo is not closed yet. One reason could be the Republican opposition to closing the detention facility, claiming it is still necessary in a world still marred by terrorism. Another, is a more practical reason – namely what to do with so dangerous prisoners.

The Danish people remember the victims of Paris

Thousands of people in Copenhagen remembered victims of the Paris terror attack. Photo: Annette Birch.

Thousands of Danes remember victims of the Paris terror attack. Photo: Annette Birch.

by Annette Birch

Published in The Capital Post on Nov. 18, 2015, http://thecapitalpost.com/danish-people-remember-victims-paris-p-47038.html

A sea of flaming lights illuminated the night as thousands of people with torches in hand gathered to remember the more than 129 civilians killed and 350 wounded in the terrorist attack in Paris on Nov. 13. The ceremony was arranged by youth organizations from all political parties and held near the French Embassy in Central Copenhagen.

“The attack in Paris is an attack on all of us. Let us all stand together for freedom and against extremism. We see them for what they are: Fanatics and criminals,” said Danish Prime Minister Lars Løkke Rasmussen at the event after observing a minute of silence in honor of the victims. He stressed the importance of everyone carrying on as before.

“We have to hold on to our daily lives. If we cannot sit down without fear at a cafe, then we have surely lost. Let us together fight the darkness, light a light for all the people, who died in Paris,” Rasmussen said.

Two days after the attacks on a soccer stadium, a concert hall and numerous bars and cafes in Central Paris, the French authorities was still trying to identify victims and relatives were still looking for loved ones. In Denmark, several ceremonies mourning the victims had been held mourning the people killed and wounded in the shootings and most buildings had flagged on half throughout the weekend. The Danish Prime Minister rushed along with other heads of states to condemn the attacks, describing them as unbelievable and cynical.

We have to fight the same enemies.
The French Ambassador in Denmark, Francois Zimeray, acknowledged the support of the Danish people and other countries and stressed the importance of countries standing together to fight terrorism.

“Freedom is a vision of the World. It is the same we share. We have to fight the same enemies,” said Zimeray with reference to Islamic State or ISIS, the terrorist organization claiming responsibility for the attacks. He especially thanked the Danish people for once again showing their solidarity with France by being present at the ceremony and by the continuous stream of flowers, which had been laid in front of the French Embassy over the weekend.

Danes talk of themselves as a small country but you are a great people. And you have shown that in our darkest hour,” Zimeray said and received several smiles from the audience in return.

The war has no color and no religion
The torches were almost burned out and several were already laying smoking on the ground. A 5-year-old boy with a blue cap balanced on a small ledge in order to get a better a view, his mother standing beside. A light-haired girl and a woman with a scarf lightly wrapped over her dark hair exchanged a few words nearby. The street seemed to be alive with people of all ages, nationalities and religions.

I think we will win. Because we are united in front of a horror, which has no color and no religion,” said the French Ambassador in tune with the sentiment of the moment.

Helle Munk from ActionAid Denmark agreed that this war was not a battle between religions, but an attack on everyone believing in the values of democracy and human rights. But the attacks in Paris were unfortunately not the only ones. In October, more than 90 people were killed in a terrorist attack in Turkey and in November more than 40 people were killed in an attack in Lebanon.

The last torches had burned out and people were starting to leave when the last band ended the evening by echoing the sentiment of the evening with the words by Outlandish “We will not let you be indifferent to the world…”

Republicans candidates are not elected on foreign policy – but they can loose the election over it

by Annette Birch

There was a moment of awkwardness as Sen. Rand Paul corrected leading Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump attacks that the Trans-Pacific Partnership,  the trade deal among the U.S. and 11 other countries, was “a disaster” and would benefit China – “No. 1 abuser” of the United States.

“You know, we might want to point out that China’s not part of this deal,” Sen. Paul Rand corrected him.

However, the question is whether it matters for Republican voters.

For while the Washington Post and The Hill was discussing whether Sen. Marco Rubio or Sen. Ted Cruz won the debate, Trump was picked out as the winner by 28 % of the GOP voters, according to an internet poll by The Washington Post. Rubio, who was the next in line, was seen as the winner by 23 percent.

On Twitter, Trump also had his moment, according to the Washington Post.

He won the nomination but lost the election
It is not the first time that Republican presidential candidates have been consistently wrong about foreign policy.

Last election, Romney did not exactly distinguish himself as a wizz on foreign policy. First, he stumbled over Libya, where he in response to the storming of the American embassy in Cairo and the killing of the American ambassador and three others in Libya said that he “sympathiz[ed] with those who waged the attack,” according to The Atlantic on Sept. 12, 2012.

Then he offended the British Prime Minister David Cameron by questioning his ability to run the Olympics. Several media, including Slate and The New Yorker, felt it was part of his narrow world-view and incompetence on foreign policy.

Romney ended up loosing the election to his Democratic counterpart, Barack Obama.

I can see Russia from my window

Most notably, however, are the blunders made by the former Republican Vice-Presidential candidate, Sarah Palin, running for office in 2008.

Here she is on CBS, demonstrating her knowledge – or lack thereof – of the relationship between the United States and Russia.

See other incidences TpmTv of foreign policy blunders

However, the Republicans nominated Sen. John McCain as their candidate for president – a man, who have over 20 years of experience with foreign policy.

The final election can be lost on foreign policy blunders

Past examples show it can go both ways. Some issues can seem more important for Republican voters than foreign policy. The economy, creating new jobs, immigration are issues, which should also be taken into consideration.

However, the last election has also shown that serious foreign policy blunders can make it very difficult for candidates to win the final election. Slate even talked about Romney’s London blunder as the moment he lost the election.

So the question is: Will Republican voters dare choose a candidate, who has shown himself to be as incompetent on foreign policy as Donald Trump? A businessman, who should know better than to go unprepared to a political debate and blunder on an economic trade agreement!

Especially when going up against a former Secretary of State.

For it is not like the Republicans do not have other candidates. Rubio may have been critized for being unexperienced and giving mixed answers on foreign policy; Rand Paul for giving foreign policy his own slant; and Ben Carson for spewing word salad on foreign policy.

But they have not made any significant blunders on foreign policy and in the final election American voters will look at who they feel comfortable with being the Commander-in-Chief, especially in a more and more internationalized World.

Forår, føl og fuldblod på irsk hestestutteri

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Det lille hoppeføl er stadig uvidende om de store forventninger, der er til hende, som barnebarn af den prisbelønnede væddeløbshingst, Invincible Spirit. Foto: Annette Birch.

 

Af Annette Birch

Hun kigger uforfærdet ud over indhegningen, hvor mennesker fra mange forskellige lande er kommet for at se hende og hendes slægtninge. Hendes lille bløde mule dirrer og de store brune øjne skinner, før hun sætter i et spring og sikkert får de lange tynde ben til at bære hende i sikkerhed hos sin mor, den 5-årige Readyandaway fra Texas, der holder et vågent øje med hende nærved.

På det irske hestestutteri, Irish National Stud, er verden stadig fuld af leg for det kun få måneder gamle brune hoppeføl og de ca. 200 andre føl, der er født dette forår. Men der er store forventninger til datteren af vinderen af 4 væddeløb, den 11-årige amerikansk-ejede Lawman, og barnebarnet af den berømte irske væddeløbshest Invincible Spirit, der som 2-5 årig vandt 7 løb og siden har været far til over 300 prisbelønnede efterkommere.

En ny dag truer

Irish National Stud, der i år fylder 100 år, er et af de mange hestestutterier i Irland, hvor man avler fuldblodsheste til væddeløb – en meget populær sport i Irland.

Den amerikanskejede 11-årige Americain er i høj kurs som avlshingst på Irish National Stud.

Den 11-årige Americain er i høj kurs som avlshingst på Irish National Stud. Foto: Annette Birch.

Efter et dyk i 2007 har både væddeløbsbanerne og online spil oplevet en markant fremgang siden 2011 og i dag udgør hestevæddeløbsindustrien en betydelig del af den irske økonomi. Irland er også den 3.største avler af væddeløbsheste, kun overgået af USA og Australien.

”Avlen af verdens hurtigste heste har været livsnerven i Irish National Stud siden stutteriet blev grundlagt i 1900,” fortæller guiden til en flok turister foran statuen af oberst William Hall Walker, der planlagde føllenes fødselsdatoer efter stjernerne.

”Her har stutteriet avlet flere generationer af berømte væddeløbsheste for det engelske kongehus. Men i dag er vores største attraktion væddeløbshingstene.”

Vi går forbi staldene. På begge sider af stien går hingstene i store separate indhegninger med dobbelt hegn, der sikrer, at de ikke kommer op at slås eller får skader på anden måde. Americain, en 10-årige amerikansk-ejet hingst og vinder af 11 løb i USA og Frankrig, løfter opmærksomt hovedet og ser ud mod os. Han vipper lidt med ørerne og går nærmere, mens han villigt poserer for kameraet. Nærved i en anden indhegning fortsætter det det lille hoppeføls bedstefar, den 18-årige Invincible Spirit, med at græsse. Selv om hans væddeløbsdage er ovre, er der stadig bud efter ham som avlshingst.

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Hingste fra venstre mod højre: Øverst: Gale ForceTen og Palavanci. Nederst: Invincible Spirit og Big Bad Bob. Fotos: Annette Birch.

Forår betyder føl

IrishStudFarm_red_udvalgte39

En kommende væddeløbshingst nærmer sig hegnet. Foto: Annette Birch.

 

På en af de nærliggende indhegnede enge springer et lille rødligt hingsteføl med hvide sokker og en hvid blis, der når helt ned om mulen, rundt om sin mor. Han tager tilløb og ræser afsted, afbrudt af et bukkespring, hvor de lange bagben ryger højere i vejret end den lille krop. Ivrig spejder han ud over hegnet med et blåt og et brunt øje, før han stejler op af moderen, Queen of Tarts. Hun kigger lidt træt på ham som en mor med en hyperaktiv søn og indvilliger derefter i at løbe lidt om kap med ham, før hun igen vender tilbage til græsningen.

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Den 14-årige britiske hoppe Queen of Tarts kom som Readyandaway og mange af de andre hopper, der nu græsser med deres føl, til hesteinstituttet i vinter-sommer 2014 for at blive bedækket af stutteriets berømte væddeløbshingste eller deres afkom. Nu, 11 måneder efter, vrimler det med deres afkom, som instituttet også tilbyder pasning af.

Animal Aid har kritiseret, at mange avlshopper udsættes for et uholdbart pres ved konstant at skulle være med føl og udsættes for kunstigt lys og hormoner for at få dem i brunst på det rigtige tidspunkt. På Irish National Stud går der da heller ikke mere end 10 dage fra deres egne avlshopper har født til de bliver bedækket igen og kunstigt lys bliver brugt fra begyndelsen af december. Derimod bliver hormoner kun brugt i særlige tilfælde.

Fuldblodshesten nedstammer fra en hingst

På Irish National Stud begynder det regnen at falde ganske stille. Hestene vipper lidt utilfreds med ørerne og hoppen med den hyperaktive søn trækker ligesom de andre heste ind under træerne langs hegnet. Her kan de finde læ mod den silende regn, der behersker 200 ud af 365 dage på den grønne ø.

Darley araberen menes at være stamfader til fuldblodshestene. Maleri: John Wotton, 1722.

Darley araberen menes at være stamfader til fuldblodshestene. Maleri: John Wotton, 1722.

Flere af hestene er født og opvokset i Irland, men studier har vist, at alle engelske fuldblodsheste nedstammer fra tre araberhingste, der levede omkring Middelhavet omkring år 1700: Darley Arabian, Godolphin Arabian og Byerly Turk.Et studie fra 2005 fra Trinity College i Dublin, Irland, viser endda, at 95% af væddeløbshestene kunne spores tilbage en enkelt hingst – Darley araberen, født i 1700.

Siden har få hingste domineret fuldblodsmarkedet, selv om der i stadig højere grad er blevet indført flere forskellige hopper og i slutningen af 1960erne blev europæisk påvirket af nordamerikanske hingste, særligt Northern Dancer, en canadisk væddeløbshest, der vandt flere berømte løb som Kentucky Derby og er stamfar til en lang række af de bedste væddeløbsheste i verden.

Indavl truer racens fremtid

Men det store fokus på fart og præstationer har ifølge flere eksperter ført til en indavl, der har store omkostninger for hestenes velbefindende og levedygtighed.

”En tiendedel af fuldblodshestene lider af ortopædiske problemer og brud, 10 % har lav fertilitet, 5 % har unormalt små hjerter og flertallet lider af blødninger i lungerne,” siger Matthew Binns, Royal Veterinary College i London, til New Scientist d. 6. september 2005.

Spilorganisationen Online Casino i Danmark og dyrebeskyttelsesorganisationen, Animal Aid i England, har advaret mod, at indavl fører til en svagere race med problemer med ben og hove, hestene kommer ud for skader ved fald under væddeløbene og stress fører til mavesår. Det gælder særligt i USA, hvor hestene begynder at løbe væddeløb som 2-årige, dvs. før de er ordentligt udvoksede.

Irish National Stud er opmærksomme på faren for indavl og har taget deres forholdsregler.

“Vi ser på hoppernes stamtavler i forhold til de hingste, som skal bedække dem, for at sikre, at indavlen ikke er for tæt. Vi anbefaler som minimum, at der er 3×3 generationer mellem dem,” siger Sinead Hyland, der er marketing koordinator på hestestutteriet.

Fremtiden må vente

Det bekymrer imidlertid ikke Invincible Spirits barnebarn som hun putter sig ned i høet, udmattet efter en dag med leg og spisning.

Det lille hoppeføl har noget at leve op til - her er det en af hendes stamfædre, Northern Dancer, der vinder Kentucky Derby i 1964.

Northern Dancer vinder Kentucky Derby i 1964.

Hendes stamtavle går ellers på både mødrene og fædrene side tilbage til den berømte canadiske væddeløbshest Northern Dancer. Hun er som sin mor amerikaner, men det er slet ikke sikkert, at hun bliver ved med at være det, for hun kan nå at skifte ejer mange gange før deres første løb.

Allerede som 1-årig kan hun bydes for salg – og føl af Invincible Spirit sælges for omkring 7 mio. kr. Og som 2-årig kan hun begynde løb og vil få sit navn, for føllene får først navn, når de begynder deres første løb.

Måske vil hun som sin far og farfar blive en væddeløbshest først og derefter en avlshest bagefter. Eller måske vil hun som sin mor løbe et løb som 2-årig uden nogen nævneværdig placering og begynde sin karriere som avlshoppe allerede som 4-årig.

Men lige nu har hun hvad hun skal bruge – sin mor, mad, varme og tryghed. Så må fremtiden vente…

Retsudvalget anklager regeringen for at forsinke whistleblower rapport

Retsudvalgets medlemmer pressede justitsminister Mette Frederiksen for svar under åbent samråd om offentligt ansattes ytringsfrihed d.13.maj. Foto: Annette Birch.

Retsudvalgets medlemmer pressede justitsminister Mette Frederiksen for svar under åbent samråd om offentligt ansattes ytringsfrihed d.13.maj. Foto: Annette Birch.

Af Annette Birch

111Flere af retsudvalgets medlemmer anklagede justitsminister Mette Frederiksen for at forsinke betænkningen om offentligt ansattes ytringsfrihed i flere måneder under et åbent samråd d. 13. maj. Karina Lorentzen Dehnhardt (SF) havde bl.a. svært ved at forstå, at der skulle gå fire måneder, før et så gennemarbejdet forslag så dagens lys.

“Det virker som en raffineret måde at obstruere det på. Vi misser en historisk chance for at gøre noget på det her område, fordi vi ikke ved, hvordan det ser ud efter et valg,” sagde hun.

Betænkningen om offentligt ansattes ytringsfrihed har været undervejs siden 2011, hvor regeringen bl.a. i kølvandet på debatten om Snowdons afsløringer i USA og flere enkeltsager i Danmark nedsatte et udvalg, der skulle undersøge og komme med forslag til sikring af offentligt ansattes ytringshed. Udvalget gik først i gang i begyndelsen af 2013 og afleverede den endelige rapport d. 26. januar 2015. Dansk Magisterforening kritiserer, at det derefter tog ca. 3 måneder til betænkningen blev offentliggjort.

”Vi syntes, at det er højst besynderligt, at det skulle tage så lang tid,” sagde Inge Stage, der er formand for Dansk Magisterforening og er Akademikernes repræsentant i Betænkningskommissionen.

Offentligt ansatte skal informeres bedre om deres rettigheder

Betænkningen konkluderer, at der ikke er brug for flere lovtiltag for at sikre offentligt ansattes ytringsfrihed. Derimod var dele af udvalget tilhængere af, at arbejdsgivere skulle betale større erstatninger og have bevisbyrden for ulovligt at afskedige offentligt ansatte, der benyttede sig af deres ytringsfrihed både som privatpersoner og whistleblowers.

Justitsministeren ville først ikke kommentere på om der var brug for reformer, men indrømmede – hårdt presset af Pernille Skipper (EL) – at der stadig var behov for yderligere at sikre offentligt ansattes ytringsfrihed.

Det er der, når der er offentligt ansatte, der ikke kender til deres rettigheder. Det er derfor en god ide med en løbende informationsindsats overfor offentligt ansatte og dialog med de faglige organisationer, sagde Mette Frederiksen.

Karina Lorentzen Dehnhardt (SF) mente, at erfaringerne viste, at det var utilstrækkeligt med information – offentligt ansatte måtte også ansættelsesretligt beskyttes bedre mod uberettiget afskedigelse, når de benyttede sig af deres ytringsfrihed.

Justitsministeren ville i øvrigt ikke uddybe regeringens holdning nærmere før efter høringsfristen udløb d. 5. juni.

Nye tider i Lille Tibet

Munke, der blæser til morgenbøn fra Thiksey-klostret. Foto: Annette Birch.

Munke, der blæser til morgenbøn fra Thiksey-klostret. Foto: Annette Birch.

af Annette Birch

Se soundsliden om Lille Tibet på: http://kursusweb.dje.dk/~birch/tibet_templer_soundslide

Hastige fodtrin genlyder gennem Thiksey-klostrets gange som voksne munke og aspiranterne i alderen fra seks til 18 år haster til morgenbøn. Klokken er lidt over fem om morgenen og solen er stadig ved at kaste sit første gyldne skær over bjergtoppene i den nordøstligste del af Indien kaldet Lille Tibet, da munke i farverige rober og gule cerimonelle hatte vækker klostrets beboere til lyden af store horn.

Drenge under uddannelse som munke i Thiksey-klostret. Foto: Annette Birch.

Drenge under uddannelse som munke i Thiksey-klostret. Foto: Annette Birch.

Sådan begynder dagen hver morgen for de 100.000 munke, der udgør over en tredjedel af befolkningen i Lille Tibet i den allernordligste del af Indien. Drenge ned til 6 år bliver sendt til klostrene for at få tag over hovedet, mad og en uddannelse – noget deres familier ikke altid kan give dem.

I klostrene bliver drengene oplært til at være budhistiske munke. Som 18-årige vil de få valget mellem at fortsætte som munke eller forlade klostrenes mure for en mere verdslig beskæftigelse.

Klostrene har før i tiden været de fattigste børns eneste mulighed for uddanelse. Foto: Annette Birch.

Klostrene har før i tiden været de fattigste børns eneste mulighed for uddanelse. Foto: Annette Birch.

For mange tibetanere er religionen det vigtigste element i deres tilværelse. Den tibetanske hverdag er fyldt med religiøse handlinger, der skal skaffe god karma eller afværge ondt. I ethvert tibetansk hjem er der et husalter og bønner er en stor del af tibetanernes hverdag.

Men verden udefra trænger sig på. Hvor klostrenes før i tiden var fattige børns eneste  mulighed for at få en uddannelse, skyder der i dag flere og flere skoler op i hovedstaden Leh – ofte sponsoreret af vestlige penge.

Den næste generation foretrækker i stadig større udstrækning at blive soldat, uddanne sig eller få et andet arbejde fremfor at blive munk. Foto: Annette Birch.

Den næste generation foretrækker i stadig større udstrækning at blive soldat, uddanne sig eller få et andet arbejde fremfor at blive munk. Foto: Annette Birch.

 

Fakta om religion i Lille Tibet

  •  Den tibetanske form for buddhisme, som praktiseres i Lille Tibet, kaldes lamaisme.
  • Centralt for lamaismen er Livets Hjl. Hjulet symboliserer vejen mod fred og frihed for smerte. Det er buddhisternes mål at opnå nirvana (fred i sindet) og vende tilbage til verdenen for at undervise andre.
  • Livets Hjul illustrerer seks sfærer, som buddhisten skal overkomme for at nå nirvana. De seks sfærer er: Gudernes sfære (selv-absorbtion), halvgudernes sfære (paranoia), menneskets sfære (passion), dyrenes sfære (uvidenhed), sultne spøgelsers sfære (fattigdom) og helvedessfære (vrede).

 

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